Sumerians invented fresh techniques and improved the use of current techniques on a large scale. In the cycle, they converted how people were cultivating meals, building houses, communicating and tracking data and time.
The innovation of the Sumerians was motivated to an extreme by the absence of resources from their soil. They had little forests, almost no rock or iron, forcing them to use products like mud, the plastic of the ancient world, cleverly. They used it to create everything for reading from rocks to pottery to pills.
But the true genius of the Sumerians might have been organizing. They had the capacity to adopt and execute innovations that had been created elsewhere. They could thus mass-produce products like fabrics and pottery, which they could then trade with other individuals.
Here are some fields where the Sumerians put their stamp.
Wheeled vehicles were not invented by the Sumerians, but they likely created the first two-wheeled chariot in which a rider led an animal squad. There is proof that in the 3000s B.C. the Sumerians had such vehicles for traveling, but they were likely used for celebrations or by the army rather than as a way of getting around the landscape where the harsh weather would have rendered it hard for them to move freely.
The Sumerians formed molds to make bricks out of clay to compensate for a dearth of rocks and wood to build houses and shrines. Their structures might not have been as long-lasting as brick structures, but they could construct more of them and generate bigger towns.
Simple techniques such as placing notches on bodies were used by ancient people, but it was the Sumerians who created a standard grouping scheme centered on 60 divisions. Initially, they used reeds to keep a record of the units, but they ultimately used lateral imprints on the clay tablets with the advancement of cuneiform. Their scheme helped set the foundation for the subsequent modern mathematical calculations.